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BUIJS R-J & HUIG N (2020) Gulls in The Hague: who, when, where and why?. LIMOSA 93 (4): 185-191.

Urban habitats are important for gulls. They use cities to find food, to breed and/or as a wintering area. As four migratory gull species visit the city of The Hague in different seasons, the who, when, where and why is not as straightforward as it may seem. To gain more knowledge on the occurrence of gulls in relation to species, seasons and boroughs, fifteen volunteers counted all visible gulls in the city on five days, spread out over the annual cycle: winter (2 February), courtship period (24 March), breeding season (26 May), chick period (14 July) and autumn (15 September). The largest number counted of an individual species was of Blackheaded Gull in winter, including several ringed individuals from all over Europe. The largest total number of gulls was counted in September, when 70% of a total of 4600 gulls were seen on city beaches (Fig. 3). This suggests that the city’s location along the coast is a major draw, especially for Herring Gulls. However, the large differences between species, age groups and locations indicate that there is no such thing as a typical urban gull.

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limosa 93.4 2020
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